Search This Blog

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Eastern New York Timeline - 1620s


Apr 11

The Dutch Staats turns down a Dutch request which would permit English pilgrims to settle the Hudson Valley.


Arent Van Curler, the founder of Schenectady, is born at Nijkerk, Holland.

New Jersey

A Dutch immigrant ship is wrecked on Sandy Hook. The crew and passengers get ashore and set out for Manhattan. Penelope van Princis stays behind with her seriously wounded husband. Raritan Indians find them, kill the husband and wound Penelope, leaving her for dead. She is captured by two Indians and eventually ransomed by New Amsterdam.


James I grants the Plymouth Company a colony in the New England area to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific (including what will become New York).


Jun 3

The Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyerde West-Indische Compagnie) monopoly is chartered in Holland by the States-General to completely control the Atlantic trade to North America and Africa. It is capitalized at 7,500,000 guilders. The British protest.


James I instructs ambassador to The Hague Sir Dudley Carleton to protest against the Dutch colonies and halt a fleet of half a dozen or so Dutch supply vessels.


The approximate date Francis Lovelace, future second colonial governor of New York, is born in Kent.


Feb 9

Sir Dudley Carlton, English envoy to the Hague, lodges a formal protest against the formation of the New Netherland colony. The Dutch deny any attempt to challenge English sovereignty.


Dutch trader Jacob Eelkes (Eelckens) captures a Pequot sachem on Long Island, threatens him with decapitation unless he pays a large ransom. The Pequot pays off Eelkes with 140 fathoms of wampum.



The Dutch ship New Netherland under Cornelius Jacobsz Mey departs with 30 families aboard, mostly French Hugenots from Spanish-ruled Belgium, the first settlers, for the mouth of the Hudson. Of the five unmarried women aboard four will be married while at sea.


The New Netherland arrives in New York harbor, discovers a French ship, which they escort out of the area. The settlers arrive on Nooten Eylandt (Nut Island, now Governors Island). Most go up the Hudson aboard the New Netherland to Fort Orange (Albany) the rest begin farming on Staten Island.


The Dutch West India Company is organized and given control over all Dutch coastal areas along western Africa and in the Americas. It takes control of New Amsterdam. One of her ships there stays over the winter into next year, trading on the Hudson River and on Long Island Sound. ** The West India Company claims a monopoly on the fur trade. ** The Long Island settlement of Huntington begins keeping records when the English settlers note lands they purchase from the local Indians. ** A petition by Protestant (Walloon) refugees from Spanish persecution, now in New Netherland, requesting they be taken under the wing of the Dutch West India Company, arrives in Amsterdam.


The New Netherland's commander Cornelius Jacobsz Mey, advised by Adriaen Jorisz Thienpont, who he encountered in North America upon his arrival, sails up the Hudson to the abandoned Fort Nassau, and builds Fort Orange. Thienpont establishes friendly relations with nearby Indians.


Jan 21

Catalina Trico and Joris Rapalje, passengers for the New Netherland, are married in Amsterdam.

Jan 25

The New Netherland, under the command of Cornelius Jacobsz May, sails from Amsterdam. The Dutch West India Company's Provisional Orders are read to the assembled passengers.


The New Netherland leaves Holland.


18 Walloon families settle near the site of Albany.

Nov 14

Former textile worker Bastiaen Jansz Krol, who arrived in New Amsterdam earlier in

the year as a "comforter of the sick" (rank below that of a minister), and having

returned to Amsterdam, appears before the church council and applies to perform

baptisms and marriages in Fort Orange (Albany), and is authorized to do so. He founds

the Dutch Reformed Church of North America.


Dutch West India Company ships have returned to the Netherlands, bringing reports of great success in the New Amsterdam colonies. They carry furs worth 50,000 guilders.


A few buildings are erected within the walls of Fort Orange. ** The Dutch West India Company brings 30 families to settle in the Albany area. ** Fighting resumes between the Mohawk and Mahican near Albany. ** David Pietersz de Vries attempts an illegal trading voyage to New Netherland.


The Spanish capture Wesel. Townsman Peter Minuit leaves for the Netherlands. He goes to the Dutch West India company headquarters and requests a posting to New Netherland, as a volunteer business promoter.


The Dutch West India Company issues the Provisional Orders, warning colonists they are going to the New World strictly as employees and will follow all company directives as to the location of settlements and farms, and the crops planted.



England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Southampton, a defensive and offensive alliance designed to protect the latter from Spain. Colonial ports are to be open to both English and Dutch merchants.


A crude Dutch map of Long Island refers to the Matouwax (Metoac) tribe.


English travel writer Samuel Purchas continues his Pilgrimes series, including his transcription from a facsimile of the log of Robert Juet, Henry Hudson's first mate on the voyage to the New World.


May 4

Minuit arrives at the site of the future New Amsterdam in the Sea-mew.

Jul 31

Minuit returns to Manhattan from a trip to Albany.

Aug 1

Minuit meets with De Rasière. They decide to send Frisian lay minister Bastiaen Krol to Albany to replace the massacred Daniel Van Criekenbeeck as military leader of the outpost.

Sep 23

Willem Verhulst and his wife return to the Netherlands aboard the ship The Arms of Amsterdam. The ship also carries a letter from Secretary and commercial agent Issack de Rasière to the directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company - the first known letter written from New Amsterdam, announcing Peter Minuit's purchase of Manhattan Island from the Lenape Indians for 60 guilders, and announcing his orders to many colonists at Fort Orange (Albany) and Fort Nassau (Gloucerster, New Jersey) to move to New Amsterdam. He mentions buying beads from the Minquac Indians, and sends several samples, asking for manufctured beads in return. The vessel also bears samples of summer grain crops as well as more than 8,000 animal pelts. With Fort Amsterdam nearing completion, builder Crijn Fredericks departs.

Nov 6

Patroon Frederick Philipse is born in Bolswaert, the Netherlands.


Father Joseph de la Roche-Dallion becomes one of the first Europeans to visit the Niagara region. ** A few months after Fort Orange is voluntarily depopulated commander Daniel Van Crieckenbeek (Creickenbeeck), three of his men and 24 Mahicans, including chief Monemin, are ambushed and killed nearby by a Mohawk war party. One of the men, Tymen Bouwensz is roasted and eaten by the Mohawks. The Dutch had been forming an alliance against the Mohawks with the Mahicans, who begin to pushing the latter eastward from Schoharie Creek to the Hudson River.


Mar 19

William Bradford writes to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, expressing the Pilgrims' appreciation for treatnent they received while living in the Netherlands. He accepts an offer to trade from Dutch West India Company secretary Isaak de Rasières.

Aug 7

Dutch delegate Jan de Wieringen arrives in Plymouth with gifts of sugar and cheese, and a message from Peter Minuit - maintaining Dutch rights to settle and trade in New Amsterdam.

Aug 14

The approximate date Bradford writes to New Amsterdam, reiterating England's claim to the entire region and suggesting their home country work with his as soon as possible to resolve the issue.


De Rasières travels to Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, aboard the Nassau. Bradford sends a boat for the ambassador to bring him to New Plymouth (today's Plimouth Plantation). They discuss a trade treaty, but Bradford is noncommittal. The Pilgrims buy all of the Nassau's trade goods.

Oct 1

Bradford writes the government in New Amsterdam, again thanking the Dutch for their hospitality to the Pilgrims.

New Amsterdam

The West India Company sends goods worth 56,170 guilders to New Amsterdam and receives 7,520 beaver pelts and 370 otter skins, worth 56,420 guilders.


Europeans discover the oil springs in Allegany County. ** French missionary

Joseph de la Roche Dallion explores the region around the future Cattaraugus County.


Mar 10

A patroonship plan is drawn up for New Netherland. The original document has been lost.


Albany's Fort Orange is rebuilt. ** The Iroquois have driven the Mahican east of the Hudson River. ** Mohawks and Mahicans next turn their focus to the Lenape, in the lower Hudson Valley, sending raiding parties south to demand tribute.


Jun 7

To encourage colonization, the Dutch West India Company's Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions (Charter of Liberties) establishes the patroon system in New Netherland (New York colony). In exchange for a trade monopoly the Company agrees to supply slaves and build a better fort on Manhattan. Indian lands outside of Manhattan must be purchased from them. Amsterdam pearl merchant Killian van Rensselaer is given the first charter.


Even though the New World fur trade is making money, directors of the Dutch West India Company complain to the States General that settlers are not producing a profit.

(c) 2010 David Minor / Eagles Byte

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

The Importance of Being Sturdy

Dec 14, 2002

In 1882 a visitor in his late twenties stood with his head tilted back, near the northwest corner of Chicago's Grant Park, and surveyed the narrow structure thrusting skyward. A bemused sneer crept into his voice (it hadn't usually too far to travel) and he proclaimed it a "castellated monstrosity with pepper boxes stuck all over it." Oscar Fingall O'Flahertie Wilde had rendered his judgment. Perhaps the Irish visitor, author of the children's classic The Selfish Giant, might have found the structure of greater interest had he know of its reputed ghost. But we're getting ahead of ourselves.

Chicago had been jacked up out of the mud. Much of the fill used was gained by deepening the Chicago River, thus distancing citizens even further from the muck. Engineer Ellis Chesbrough had managed to make the drains empty properly, but the problem of waste disposal still remained. The city's water commissioners went for the cheapest solution (surprise, surprise) - just dump the raw sewage into the river. Much cheaper than dumping it into the lake, digging a sewage canal to flow the sludge to the Illinois River, or even, what sounds more like a 20th Century "green" plan, to pump it into reservoirs and turn it into manure. So off the odoriferous mess went, into Lake Michigan. Except for the portion that the city drew off of to provide its drinking water. And for making ice when the stockyards came along later on and added to the melange.

River water stank and could kill you, but off where the sun rose every morning was this huge lake. If you could get out past the floating slop hugging the shore you could find all the clean water you needed. In March of 1864, despite all those who said he couldn't pull it off, Chesbrough set out to bring potable (if not pure) water to thirsty citizens (nearly 110,000 of them in 1860). The first task was to build and sink a "crib" of iron and timber, two miles from shore, containing an iron cylinder that would be sunk 33 feet to the lake bottom and bore through another 31 feet into the lake bed. The upper portion was filled with stone ballast. Then other gangs of laborers and mules began tunneling toward the city, beneath the lake bed's surface. When they had finished Chicago had a two-mile long iron soda straw, five feet in diameter, lying on its side beneath its lake bed, one end at the crib out in the lake, the other end near Grant Park.

The final step was to build a pumphouse at the park end. Architect William W. Boyington designed a mock-Gothic structure to be built out of Joliet limestone. When completed it was topped by the 154-foot stone tower that so bemused Mr. Wilde. It contained a three-foot diameter iron pipe which, when partially filled with water, would act as a governor, modulating the water flow into the pumping station. Completed in 1869, Wilde's "monstrosity" and the building at its foot would be the only structures standing two years later when the O'Leary family stable - it i said - launched the Great Chicago Fire. Which brings us to our ghost.

Based on absolutely no evidence whatsoever, the legend has it that one municipal employee stayed behind when everyone else fled the lethal heat. In the manner of Nellie Swinging From the Bell and Casey at the Throttle, this anonymous hero kept the pumps running until the last minute, for firemen that had already lost their battle, then did the only thing possible and hanged himself before the flames reached him. A number of tourists down through the years swear they've seen a hanging figure through an upper window. Guess you'll have to go and look for yourself.

Script 295

© 2002 David Minor / Eagles Byte

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Portrait of a Year - 1934


Doctor Francis E. Townsend establishes his Old Age Revolving Pensions Limited to provide $200 a month pensions to all retirees - the Townsend Plan.

Shotgun George Ziegler masterminds the kidnapping of wealthy St. Paul, Minnesota, resident Edward George Bremer for the Barker-Karpis gang. A $200,000 ransom is paid.

The Merlin (developed from the F.XI Kestrel) is adopted as the engine for the Interceptor Monoplane (Hawker Hurricane).

Jan 1

Los Angeles, California, floods kill forty-five people. Some canyon areas get up to ten feet of water and debris. Downtown records 8.26 inches of rain since December 30; Azusa gets 16.29 inches.

Columbia defeats Stanford in the Rose Bowl.

Jan 6

A League of Nations truce in the border war between Bolivia and Paraguay - the Chaco War - breaks down.

Jan 7

Farmers protesting a planned embargo begin preventing milk trucks from entering Chicago.

Russia's first ambassador to the U. S. arrives in New York City.

6,000 German pastors protest Nazi efforts to quiet their voices.

Jan 8

The U. S. Supreme Court, in Home Building and Loan Association v. Blaisdell et al, upholds a Minnesota law temporarily banning mortgage foreclosures.

French embezzler Alexander Stavisky, implicated in a bank swindle, dies by gunshot under mysterious circumstances in a Chamonix ski chalet.

Jan 9

Turkey, with the aid of U. S. industrial experts, issues a five-year plan.

Football's Bart Starr, Green Bay Packers quarterback and coach, is born.

Jan 10

Marinus Van der Lubbe is guillotined in Leipzig, Germany, for starting last February's Reichstag fire.

Jan 11

German police raid the homes of many dissenting clergy.

Jan 14

Spanish leftist Louis Companys is elected president of Catalonia.

Jan 16

Vermont's Mount Mansfield Ski Club is organized.

Opera singer Marilyn Horne is born in Bradford, Pennsylvania.

Jan 17

Jazz pianist Cedar Walton is born.

Jan 18

Carlos Mendeita is elected president of Cuba.

Jan 19

Robert Moses becomes the first city-wide parks commissioner, in New York City.

Jan 21

President Franklin D. Roosevelt extends the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), increasing its budget by $850,000,000.

Fishing schooner captain Fred Howard, 85, dies in Danvers, Massachusetts.

Mercantile heiress Charlotte Spaulding (Mrs. Franklin) Sidway dies in Buffalo at the age of 91. She had witnessed Lincoln's first inauguration.

Jan 22

Paris police breaks up demonstrations, arrest 750 Royalists and Communists.

Jan 23

Roosevelt recognizes the new Cuban government.

Jan 26

Germany signs a ten-year non-aggression pact with Poland.

Russia's 17th Party Congress convenes in Moscow.

Jan 27

France's Chautemps Cabinet resigns over a bank scandal.

Jan 28

Bank robber John Dillinger is arrested in Tucson, Arizona, and charged with the murder of a East Chicago, Indiana, policeman during a holdup.

The first ski tow in the U. S. is installed in Woodstock, Vermont.

Jan 29

Members of Canandaigua, New York's women's Current Events Club pose for a group photo, dressed in period costume.

Jan 30

Judge Alexander Ackerman declares the Agricultural Adjustment Act, designed to control surplus crops, unconstitutional.

The U. S. Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act, giving control of the value of the dollar related to gold, to the President.

Jan 31

The Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation is formed to provide refinancing of farm loans through the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act.

Roosevelt fixes the dollar at 59.06 ¢, gold value.


Adrien Arcand, inspired by Germany's Nazi party, founds Montreal's National Social

Christian Party.

Swindler Charles Ponzi is released from a Massachusetts state prison.

Feb 1

A New York City art gallery holds a retrospective of painter Georgia O'Keefe.

Anarchist Emma Goldman pays a visit to her old home in Rochester, New York.

Feb 2

Roosevelt creates the Export-Import Bank to facilitate foreign trade.

Alfred Rosenberg is made the Nazis' philosophical chief.

Feb 3

The Nazis rewrite the references to Jews in the Psalms.

The Spanish Supreme Court pardons four convicted U. S. spies.

Feb 5

Louisiana Senator Huey P. Long introduces his Share Our Wealth program.

Baseball star Hank Aaron is born.

Feb 6

New York City taxi drivers walk off the job.

Paris mobs fight with police.

Feb 8

A fire at the Springfield's Illinois State Arsenal causes damage to the structure and destroys many records.

Temperatures in New York City drop to 7 degrees below 0 F, lowest here for this date.

Feb 9

President Roosevelt bans air mail contracts pending an investigation into bribery charges. In the meantime the U. S. Army will deliver the mail.

Greece, Turkey, Rumania and Yugoslavia sign the Balkan Pact. Bulgaria does not join.

Film star Cary Grant marries Virginia Cherrill in London's Caxton Hall registry office.

Temperatures in New York City plunge to 15 degrees below 0 F, during 59 consecutive hours of below zero temperatures, setting a February record here. When the thermometer drops to 22 below at Rochester, New York, also a record, the car-ferry Ontario II gets stuck in the ice. Lake Ontario freezes over from shore to shore.

Feb 10

Rochester, New York, composer Howard Hanson's opera Merrymount premieres at New York's Metropolitan Opera.

Feb 11

Pianist Vladimir Horowitz makes his debut with the New York Philharmonic.

A down-the-mountain run is held on Mount Mansfield, the first ski race in the Stowe, Vermont, area.

Feb 12

Austria's Dollfuss government executes 129 Socialists.

Feb 13

U. S. beer magnate August Busch commits suicide.

Feb 14

Actress-singer Florence Henderson is born.

Feb 15

The Civil Works Emergency Relief Act goes into effect, appropriates an additional 950,000,000 for continued civil works projects of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA).

Feb 16

Due to January's devaluation of the dollar $100,000 worth of gold arrives in New York City.

A rally in New York City's Madison Square Garden turns into a free-for-all between Communists and Socialists.

Feb 17

King Albert of Belgium dies in a climbing accident, is succeeded by Leopold III.

Dillinger is sentenced to a twenty-year jail term.

Feb 20

A snowstorm hits the northeastern U. S., causing more than thirty deaths.

The Utopian Society is incorporated, in Los Angeles.

Virgil Thomson's opera Four Saints in Three Acts opens in New York City, with its librettist Gertrude Stein in the audience.

Feb 21

Stavisky scandal witness Albert Prince is killed.

Nicaraguan rebel leader Augusto César Sandino and two of his aides are assassinated.

Feb 22

Frank Capra's film It Happened One Night opens at New York's Radio City Music Hall.

Feb 23

The U. S. Crop Loan Act is passed to provide farmers with loans for planting and harvesting.

British composer Sir Edward Elgar, 76, dies in Worcester, England.

Feb 25

Baseball commissioner John McGraw dies.

Feb 27

U. S. consumer advocate Ralph Nader is born in Winsted, Connecticut.

Feb 28

Pu Yi is named Emperor of Machukuo, China.

Jazz percussionist Willie Bobo is born.


Batavia, New York, businesswoman Mary Sweetland moves her Main Street restaurant further along the street, renames it the Berry Patch.

Mar 1

When the U. S. tries to pay Panama its rental on the Canal with a check, it is turned down. Gold is requested as specified by the treaty.

Heavy weight boxing champion Primo Carnera defeats Tommy Loughran to retain his title.

Mar 2

Habib Bourguiba forms Tunisia's Neo-Destour Party.

Mar 3

Bank robber John Dillinger breaks out of an Indiana jail using a fake pistol made from wood.

Mar 4

Composer Mario Davidovsky is born in Argentina.

Mar 5

The U. S. Supreme Court upholds the right of states to fix milk prices.

Parisian intellectuals sign a anti-fascist manifesto.

Mar 6

New York's cab drivers return to work, having won a wage increase.

Mar 9

Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gargarin is born.

Mar 10

Arizona's Governor Moeur, in a states' rights dispute, calls out the National Guard to

prevent the construction of Parker Dam.

Mar 11

Television news correspondent Sam Donaldson is born in El Paso, Texas.

Mar 12

Earthquakes strike Idaho, Utah and other western states.

The president of the Estonian assembly, K. Prats, seizes dictatorial powers.

Mar 14

A train explosion in El Salvador kills 250 people and injures a thousand more.

Jazz organist Shirley Scott is born.

Mar 15

Henry Ford restores the five-dollar-a-day wage to his employees.

The first youth hostel is founded, in the U. S.

Mar 17

5,000 blacks riot in New York City over the Scottsboro Boys trial.

Italy, Austria and Hungary sign the Rome Protocols, promising political and economic cooperation.

Mar 20

Germany's Doctor Rudolph Kuehnald performs radar tests for the navy.

Mar 22

An increasingly voluble Fred Goetz (Shotgun George Ziegler) is gunned down outside a Cicero, Illinois, cafe.

Mar 23

The congregations of Brooklyn's Plymouth Church and the Congregational Church of the Pilgrims agree to merge, the new church being named Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims.

Temperatures in New York City drop to 13 degrees F, lowest here for this date.

Mar 24

The U. S. Congress passes the Tydings-McDuffie Philippine Independence Act.

Mar 25

U. S. feminist editor Gloria Steinem is born in Toledo, Ohio.

Corning Glass engineer George V. McAuley's team pours the molten pyrex for Mount Palomar's 200-inch lens.

20.6 inches of snow fall on Amarillo, Texas, in a 24-hour period.

Mar 26

Switzerland bans the slander of state institutions.

Mar 27

Two people are killed by gangsters during Kansas City, Missouri, elections.

Dance Theatre of Harlem founder Arthur Mitchell is born in New York City.

Mar 28

Bethlehem Steel and U. S. Steel agree to raise wages by 10% on April first.

Mar 29

U. S. philanthropist and arts patron Otto Hermann Kahn, promoter of the Metropolitan Opera, dies in New York City.

Poughkeepsie, New York, architect William J. Beardsley dies there at the age of 62.

Mar 31

Dillinger shoots his way out of a police trap in St. Paul, Minnesota.

Actress-singer Shirley Jones is born.


Chinese communist forces fight the Nationalist forces to a standstill at Guangchang. Each side loses about 8,000 casualties.

Apr 3

British animal behaviorist Jane Goodall is born.

Apr 4

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania renew their friendship pacts with Russia.

Apr 6

Composer Nicolas Nabokov's ballet Union Pacific premieres in Philadelphia.

A silk factory in New Jersey is the first to be fined for violating National Recovery Act (NRA) regulations.

Apr 7

Spanish police put down a Socialist-instigated strike in Barcelona.

A pro-Nazi rally in a Queens, New York, stadium erupts in a number of small skirmishes when anti-Nazi protestors gather outside the arena.

Apr 10

Journalist-author David Halberstam is born.

Apr 12

The U. S. Senate begins investigations into war profiteering during World War I.

Turkey sends U. S. embezzler Samuel Insull back to the U. S. to face charges of bankruptcy- and mail-fraud.

Austria charges twelve Nazis and five Social Democrats with high treason and expels them.

F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender is the Night is published.

New Hampshire's Mount Washington records winds gusting to 231 mph - a North American record.

Apr 13

Federal Emergency Relief Administration head Harry Hopkins announces that 4,700,000 families in the U. S. are on relief.

The Johnson Debt Default Act prohibits further loans to countries already defaulting on debts owed to the U. S.

French police find exiled Communist Leon Trotsky living inside a barbed-wire compound near Fountainbleau Forest.

Apr 15

Bolivia reports killing and injuring 1,000 Paraguayans.

Apr 16

The Oklahoma National Guard halts real-estate foreclosures for delinquent taxes.

Italian bombs kill ten people on Greece's island of Rhodes.

Apr 17

France cancels Trotsky's political asylum.

Apr 18

The first laundromat (called a washateria) is opened by J. F. Cantrell in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Apr 20

Astronomers discover a 16,000-mile-wide sunspot.

6,000 Parisian job hunters riot. The police arrest 1,000 people.

Apr 21

The U. S. Cotton Control Act, to manage quotas, is passed.

The Russian government throws the country's first fashion show, in Moscow, to counter accusations of drabness in clothing.

Apr 23

North Dakota Senator Gerald Nye is named chairman of the war profiteering investigation committee.

The chief of police of Berlin bans horoscopes and fortune telling.

Dillinger escapes from two posses in St. Paul, killing two pursuers and wounding five.

Apr 24

Film musical star Shirley MacLaine is born in Richmond, Virginia.

Apr 25

Spain's Cabinet resigns. Martial law is declared.

Cancer activist David de Peyer is born.

Actor Denny "Scott" Miller is born, in Bloomington Indiana.

Apr 27

Thirteen nations, including the U. S., sign an anti-war agreement at the seventh Pan-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay.

Apr 29

Exiled Tibetan Lama Panchen announces plans to return from China.

Apr 30

Houston, Texas, longshoremen go out on strike.

Austrian Chancellor Englebert Dollfuss has himself given dictatorial powers.


Famous Funnies, the first commercially sold comic book, is published.

May 1

The Philippine legislature ratifies the Philippines Independence Act, which calls for independence in 1946.

Jazz vocalist Shirley Horn is born.

May 3

H. G. Wells repeats an earlier prediction that there will be a world war by 1940.

Adolph Hitler creates a People's Court to judge those accused of treason.

Saudi Arabia invades Yemen.

May 5

M. Garner rides Cavalcade to victory in the Kentucky Derby.

Poland and Russia extend their non-aggression pact to 1945.

May 8

Company 235-C of the Civilian Conservation Corps, formerly located at Preston Hollow, New York, is relocated to Yaphank, Long Island, as a result of last year's racial problems.

May 9

The Jones-Costigan Sugar Act is passed by Congress to control sugar beet and sugar cane.

Barrie, Ontario's Trinity Anglican Church is gutted by a fire, restored by year's end.

May 10

Two days of dust storms sweep over Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and Kansas, carrying off 300,000,000 tons of topsoil.

May 11

Insull is released on $250,000 bail - a record - by a Chicago court.

A western and southern dust storm reaches as far east as New York City, where it dims the skies for five hours.

May 13

The U. S. and Britain go into deadlock in talks on the German debt.

May 15

Latvia's Agrarian Party seizes the government from Parliament.

May 17

20,000 people attend a pro-Nazi rally at New York's Madison Square Garden.

The Rochester (New York) Engineering Society is incorporated.

May 18

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs six crime-control laws, including ones to make

interstate kidnapping a capital crime, and one making it illegal to interfere with Federal law officers on duty.

Transcontinental & Western Air (TWA) begins commercial DC-2 service.

British admiral Sir Lewis Bayly, of World War I's Queenstown Naval Command, and his niece Miss Voysey, arrive aboard the liner Aquitania for a reunion with the U. S. fleet in New York.

May 19

Fascists take over the Bulgarian government.

Historian Willis John Abbot, 71, dies.

Broadcast journalist-novelist Jim Lehrer is born.

May 20

Attorney Clarence Darrow accuses the NRA of encouraging monopoly.

Future author Flannery O'Connor is confirmed at Savannah's Cathedral of St. John the Baptist.

May 21

A thousand people mob a New Jersey pro-Nazi rally.

The U. S. Supreme Court decides that Lee de Forest was the first to invent radio.

May 22

Pianist Peter Nero is born in New York City.

May 23

Bank robbers Clyde Barrow, 25, and Bonnie Parker, 23, are shot and killed by five sheriff's deputies under Texas Rangers Frank Hamer, near Gibsland and Plain Dealing, Louisiana.

Musician and music synthesizer inventor Robert Moog is born.

May 24

Tomas Masaryk is again elected President of Czechoslovakia.

Bolivia counterattacks at Fort Balivian. 6,000 Paraguayans are killed.

May 25

English composer Gustav Theodore Holst dies in London at the age of 69.

May 28

The Dionne Quintuplets - Annette, Cecile, Emilie, Marie and Yvonne - are born to Elzire Dionne on the family farm near Callander, Ontario, Canada. the first surviving quint in history.

Roosevelt bans the sale of arms to the participants in the Chaco War - Bolivia and Paraguay.

May 29

The U. S. signs a treaty with Cuba, releasing her from the terms of 1903's Platt amendment, and guaranteeing her independence.

May 30

Auto driver Bill Cummings wins the Indianapolis 500.

The Nazi party opens a trial, in Berlin, of 111 alleged communists.

May 31

The U. S. Senate consents to the Cuba pact.

President Roosevelt, aboard the USS Indianapolis, accompanied by British admiral Sir Lewis Bayley of World War I's Queenstown command, review the U. S. Fleet of 81 warships as well as 185 planes, as they arrive in New York City harbor.


Carson Smith (McCullers)'s friend Edwin Peacock, who she had met early in the spring, moves from Columbus, Georgia, to Fort Howard, Maryland.

Jun 1

Pop vocalist-actor Charles Eugene "Pat" Boone is born in Nashville, Tennessee.

Jun 4

Roosevelt asks Congress for $25,000,000 for flood relief.

Jun 5

Christopher Morley convenes the first meeting of the Baker Street Irregulars, named for the Sherlock Holmes street urchins, in New York City.

Televison journalist Bill Moyers is born.

Jun 6

The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is established, with Joseph Kennedy as Commissioner, to regulate stock market transactions.

Pianist Philippe Entremont is born in Rheims, France.

Civil rights leader Roy Innis is born.

Televison writer-producer Esther Shapiro is born.

Jun 7

The U. S. passes the Corporate Bankruptcy Act to simplify reorganization.

Jun 8

Poland, Russia and Romania sign a pact, in Geneva, Switzerland, guaranteeing their present borders.

British Fascist Oswald Mosley causes disturbances when he addresses 15,000 Londoners.

Jun 9

Singer Jackie Wilson is born.

Walt Disney's Donald Duck made his debut in a small role in The Little Wise Hen.

Comedian-rabbi Jackie Mason is born.

Jun 10

Italy defeats Czechoslovakia to win soccer's World Cup.

English composer Frederick Delius dies at the age of 71.

Jun 11

Miners in Flin Flon, Manitoba, go out on strike.

A disarmament conference is Geneva ends, having been unable to come to an agreement.

Actor Gene Wilder is born.

Jun 12

The U. S. passes the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, and the Farm Mortgage Foreclosure Act.

Congress adopts an air mail letter rate of 6¢.

The U. S. becomes a member of the International Telecommunication Union (ITC).

An Act is passed in Washington eliminating alley dwellings (black slums) in the city.

Magician, author and inventor David Phelps Abbott dies at the age of 70 in Omaha, Nebraska.

Jun 13

Germany rejects a Russian pact to provide mutual aid.

Max Baer knocks out Carnera, in New York City, to become the new heavyweight boxing champion.

Television reporter Marianne Means is born in Sioux City, Iowa.

Jun 14

Hitler announces he will not pay any foreign debts.

Jun 15

The U. S. Senate consents to the Pan-American pact.

Joseph H. Freelander and Max L. Hausle's $8,000,000 Bronx County Building (Bronx County Courthouse) at Grand Concourse and East 161st Street is dedicated. The building displays detailing by sculptors Charles Keck and Adolph Weinmann.

Jun 17

North Dakota governor William Langer is convicted on charges of soliciting funds from Federal workers.

Jun 18

Congress passes the Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act to return some reservation lands to the tribes.

Jun 19

The U. S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is created out of the Federal Radio Commission, to regulate telegraph and radio communications.

The Silver Purchase Act permits an increase in the value of U. S. Treasury silver holdings, the federal purchase of silver, and nationalization of silver stocks.

A joint resolution of Congress renews the National Labor Relations Board for another year.

Early Hell's Canyon, Oregon, settler Martin Hibbs is shot in the back at his cabin. His body and that of another miner, Joe Anderson, is discovered in the ashes of his burned cabin. The crime is never solved.

Nathaniel West's A Cool Million is published.

Jun 21

80,000 soldiers are joined in another battle in the Chaco War.

Jun 23

Italy seizes Albania, sailing the Italian fleet into Durazzo.

20,000 members of the Utopian Society gather at Los Angeles' Hollywood Bowl.

Jun 24

Fats Waller records Somebody Stole My Gal, Dinah, 12th Street Rag and Blue Because of You.

Canadian-born actress Marie Dressler (Leila Marie Koerber) dies in Santa Barbara, California, at the age of 65.

Jun 25

Hopkins announces that 16,000,000 people in the U. S. are on relief.

Jun 27

Congress passes the Railway Pension Act.

Saudi Arabia's Ibn Saud and Yemen's Inman sign a peace treaty, ending the Desert War.

Operatic soprano Anna Moffo is born in Wayne, Pennsylvania.

Jun 28

The U. S. Federal Housing Administration (FHA), created by Congress to insure loans for constructing and improving farms and homes, passes into law as Roosevelt signs the National Housing Act.

The Taylor Grazing Act sets aside public land for grazing of livestock.

The Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act is passed, postponing mortgage foreclosures under certain conditions.

The Tobacco Control Act establishes controls on the industry.

Jun 29

Roosevelt places an embargo on the sale of arms to Cuba.

Jun 30

Hitler flies from Bonn to Munich to face rebellious storm trooper leader Ernst Rohm, reportedly caught in a compromising position with an aide. Declining an offer to commit suicide, Rohm is executed. Karl Ernst, Berlin storm trooper leader and former Prussian Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and his wife, are executed, all while attempting to escape . Other rebellious storm trooper leaders are also executed - the Night of the Long Knives. The executions continue through July 2nd.


The British Parliament approves RAF Expansion Scheme A, setting an objective of 75 Home Defense squadrons over the next five years.

RAF Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley of the Air Ministry's Supply and Research Department claims fighter pilots will need to be equipped with six or eight guns firing 1,000 rounds a minute to destroy an enemy bomber on a single pass.

Jul 2

Key West, Florida, municipal leaders, faced with bankruptcy, turn control of the city's finances over to the Federal government. Governor David Sholtz declares a state of emergency and creates a relief program, to be headed up by state FERA head Julius F. Stone, Jr.

Jul 3

German vice chancellor Franz von Papen resigns.

Keisuke Okada is named as premier of Japan.

Jul 4

French physicist Marie Curie dies, in Sallanches.

Actor and playwright Colin Welland is born in Lancashire, England.

Poet Chaim Bialik dies, in Vienna.

Jul 5

2,000 National Guardsmen are moved to San Francisco, California, after local maritime workers walk off the job. A workers' clash with policemen leaves two dead and 115 injured.

Jul 7

Fred Perry defeats Jack Crawford and Dorothy Round wins over Helen Jacobs at the Wimbledon tennis classic.

Jul 9

Commander-in-Chief of Germany's SS, Heinrich Himmler, is given command over all concentration camps.

American Airlines inaugurates sleeper service between New York and Chicago.

Jul 11

U. S. public relations expert Ivy Lee admits agreeing to work for the Nazis.

Jul 12

Classical pianist Harvey Levan, Jr. (Van Cliburn) is born in Shreveport, Louisiana.

Jul 15

Composer Harrison Birtwistle is born in Accrington, England.

Jul 16

100,000 union workers walk off the job in sympathy with the dockworkers - the first general strike in the U. S.

Jul 18

A heat wave strikes the Midwestern U. S.

Jul 19

Labor leaders call off the general strike.

Langer is replaced as governor of North Dakota. He will later be vindicated and re-elected.

Maurice Wilson of England dies attempting to scale Tibet's Mount Everest alone.

Jul 20

Minneapolis, Minnesota, police open fire on striking truckers.

Jul 21

Phil Nowland creates the comic strip Buck Rogers.

206 people have died in the Midwest heat wave in the past three days.

French resident general of Morocco Marshal Louis Hubert Lyautey dies.

Jul 22

John Dillinger is shot down and killed by Federal agents outside a Chicago movie theater.

Jazz saxophone player Junior Cook is born.

Jul 23

Jazz composer and soprano saxophone player Steven Norman Lackritz (Steve Lacy) is born.

Jul 25

Nazi rebels assassinate Austrian chancellor Englebert Dollfuss.

Jul 26

Russia's first polo game is played in Moscow.

Mussolini moves 48,000 troops to the Austrian border.

Jul 27

The French Communist and Socialist parties form a United Front, to combat fascism.

Jul 28

Dancer Jacques d'Amboise is born in Dedham, Massachusetts.

Jul 29

Fires sweep forests, grain acreage and pasture lands in Idaho, Montana and Washington State.

French bicyclist Antonin Magne wins the Tour de France.

Kurt Schuschnigg is named chancellor of Austria.

Jul 31

West Coast maritime workers return to the job.

Two German rebels are hanged for the murder of Dollfuss.


The U.S.'s Intracoastal Waterway opens.

The American Liberty League is formed to unseat Roosevelt and cancel his New Deal policies.

Future murderer Stanis Ludwig (now going under the name Morley King), returns to the U. S. with his wife Helen, after residing in the Middle East since 1927.

Canada's Dominion Railways and Canals Department has received bids for restoring the third Welland Canal, from its intersection with the ship canal to Carleton Street in St. Catharines, to it's pre-canal condition.

Aug 1

German president Paul von Hindenburg dies.

Aug 2

The German army swears loyalty to Hitler.

Aug 3

Roosevelt visits Bonneville, Oregon, the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam.

U. S. author Leon Marcus Uris is born in Baltimore, Maryland.

Aug 4

Russia opens diplomatic relations with Bulgaria.

Aug 6

Von Hindenburg is buried.

Aug 8

Canada's L. Reid and J. R. Ayling fly the first non-stop flight from Canada to England, departing from Wasaga Beach, Ontario.

A Los Angeles police chief accuses movie stars of contributing to Communism.

Aug 9

The federal government begins to buy all U. S. silver, at a set price.

Reid and Ayling arrive in London, England.

Chiang Kai-shek takes command of China's troops to crush Communist uprisings.

Aug 11

Rochester, New York's centennial festivities open at Edgerton Park, run through September 9th.

Germany wins the fourth International Women's Games in London.

Aug 13

15,000 tons of rock plunge into the gorge below Niagara Falls.

Aug 14

San Francisco socialite Maryon Cooper Hewitt takes her twenty-year-old daughter Ann to California state psychologist Mary Scally, who examines the girl and declares her to be feeble-minded. Titon E. Tillman, a physician, recommends sterilization to the mother.

Andrew Mellon buys a Raphael in Riga, Latvia, for $1,500,000.

Aug 15

The U. S. ends its military occupation of Haiti.

Aug 16

New Brunswick, Canada, issues a commemorative postage stamp to mark the province's 150th anniversary.

Louisiana's governor Huey Long passes 27 bills.

U. S. scientist William Beebe descends 3,000 feet into the ocean in a bathysphere.

Aug 17

Fats Waller records Don't Let It Bother You.

Aug 19

German voters agree to Hitler's becoming president as well as chancellor.

Aug 20

The U. S. joins the International Labor Organization (ILO).

Roosevelt drops tariffs against livestock feed.

Aug 21

Mussolini meets with Austrian chancellor Schuschnigg.

Aug 22

U. S. farmers threaten to expel Japanese and Hindu farmers from Arizona's Salt River Valley.

Al Capone is sent to San Francisco's Alcatraz prison.

Aug 24

The U. S. signs a reciprocal trade agreement with Cuba.

Mussolini, speaking in Bologna, Italy, warns Italy that war is coming.

Red Army commander Chen Yi is wounded in the hip at Gaoxingxu while on a tour of the front with Zhou Enlai.

Aug 28

Socialist politician-novelist Upton Sinclair runs for governor of California under the End Poverty in California (EPIC) platform.

Aug 31

All gold in the San Francisco Mint is moved into the Denver Mint.

A U. S. textile strike extends to wool workers.


Carson Smith (McCullers) travels by boat from Savannah to New York City to begin her career as a writer. She loses her support money and begins a series of odd jobs.

After repeated attempts to rescue a deer trapped on a ledge above a gorge at Watkins Glen, the animal finally escapes.

Mao Tse-tung is living in a small house near the General Headquarters in Yudu.

Sep 1

1,000,000 U. S. textile workers go on strike.

Colonel Roscoe Turner flies from New York to Los Angeles in ten hours, two minutes and 51 seconds, beating his old record.

Talks in the textile strike fail and silk workers are ordered to walk out.

Sep 3

Bourguiba and other Tunisian Neo-Destour leaders are placed under house arrest.

Evangeline Booth becomes the first female leader of the Salvation Army.

Sep 4

A New York City court sentences John Smiuske to six months in jail for burning a satirical portrait of Roosevelt.

Sep 5

Hitler arrives in Nuremberg, Germany, for a giant Nazi rally, predicts the Third Reich will last for a thousand years.

Sep 6

The U. S. reports that Hitler is building submarines in foreign ports.

Sep 7

The car-ferry Ontario I is turned around by rough weather while on a moonlight cruise, sponsored by restaurateur Joe Ryan, out of Rochester, New York, with 500 passengers aboard. 60 people are injured and carried to local hospitals, forewarned by the Coast Guard cutter Eagle.

Huey P. Long orders 2,000 troops to New Orleans to forestall an effort by the city's mayor T. Semmes Walmsley to keep Long from assuming the governorship.

Sep 8

The liner Morro Castle, bound from Havana, Cuba, to New York, burns and sinks off the coast of New Jersey. More than 130 people are killed as 125,000 watch from shore.

Ku Klux Klan members in New York State's Westchester County pledge support for Naziism.

Avant-garde composer Peter Maxwell Davies is born in England.

Sep 9

Fascists and anti-Fascists demonstrate in London's Hyde Park.

A U. S. rocket breaks the sound barrier.

Sep 10

U. S. scientist Aristid van Grosse, working in Cleveland, Ohio, isolates the element Protactinium.

German-born English composer-conductor-singer Sir George Henschel dies at the age of 84.

Sep 11

Eight people are shot as Rhode Island textile strikers battle troops.

Sep 12

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania sign the Baltic Entente.

Sep 14

U. S. feminist author Kate Millet is born.

Sep 15

A New York City gas station attendant is paid with a five dollar gold certificate that turns out to be from the Lindbergh ransom. He jots down the license plate number.

Sep 16

German Lutherans stage an anti-Nazi march in Munich.

Richard Blandon, lead singer with The Dubs, is born in Montgomery, Alabama.

Sep 17

Tennis player Maureen "Little Mo" Connolly is born.

Sep 18

Russia is admitted to the League of Nations.

Sep 19

The driver who paid for gas with a five dollar gold certificate turns out to be Bruno Richard Hauptmann.

Detroit Tigers baseball player Hank Greenberg refuses to play today's game because it falls on Yom Kippur (Jewish Day of Atonement).

Sep 20

Hauptmann is arrested for receiving the Lindbergh ransom.

Italian film star Sophia Loren is born.

Sep 22

Roosevelt asks the textile workers to go back on the job.

Sep 24

Bolivians kill 1400 Paraguayans at the Battle of Algodonal.

Baseball player Babe Ruth makes his farewell appearance.

Sep 25

Hugh Johnson quits as director of the beleaguered NRA.

The U. S. yacht Rainbow wins the America's Cup.

Sep 26

The ocean liner Queen Mary is christened in Scotland as a crowd of 200,000 looks on.

Afghanistan becomes the sixtieth League of Nations member.

Sep 28

Jail officials discover a knife-like weapon in Hauptmann's cell.

French film star Brigitte Bardot is born.

Fats Waller records Serenade for a Wealthy Widow and Mandy.

Sep 29

Ethiopia issues a statement of friendship for Italy.

An editorial in the Chinese Communist Party newspaper by Luo Fu (Zhang Wentian) writes that the party's forces may have to abandon some of their centers in order to fight Chiang Kai-shek more effectively.

Sep 30

Roosevelt asks for a truce between labor and capital, to save his NRA.


Convicted embezzler Charles Ponzi is deported to Italy.

Cleveland Still, first tenor with The Dubs, is born in New York City.

Historian Barbara Wertheim (later Tuchman) goes to Tokyo as an unpaid assistant to William L. Holland, American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations' international secretary, as he works on the "Economic Handbook of the Pacific".

Oct 1

Cuba suspends its constitution in order to combat Communism.

The New York Stock Exchange registers with the SEC.

Oct 3

U. S. textile workers agree to a six-month truce.

Oct 4

Enrico Fermi, working in England, measures the speed of the neutron.

Oct 5

A revolt by Spanish miners in Asturia is put down, with Francisco Franco coordinating operations from Madrid. 1500 miners are killed; twice as many wounded.

Oct 7

The newly-elected Spanish government of Alejandro Leroux crushes an attempt by Catalonian troops to secede.

Oct 8

A revolt breaks out in Madrid, Spain.

Charles Lindbergh makes a voice identification of Hauptmann.

Baritone Doc Green of The Drifters is born in New York City.

China's Red Army has a total complement of 86,859 men and women.

Oct 9

Yugoslavia's King Alexander and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou are assassinated on a visit by Alexander to Marseille, France, by anti-Serbian radicals.

The St. Louis Cardinals win the World Series, defeating the Detroit Tiger, in Detroit.

Zhou Enlai arrives in Yudu to confer with a wounded Chen Yi on the upcoming Long March of their communist forces.

Oct 10

An editorial in the Chinese Nationalist daily newspaper Monguo Ribao, warns of the dangerous time to come, including a second World War. It calls for the Chinese people to return to strict morality. ** A few elements of the Chinese communist forces begin moving westward out of their headquarters in the soviet area at Ruijin, in Guangdong province - the first stirrings of the Long March. Most of those departing are members of a convalescent unit, provided with ten days of supplies. Party security chief Deng Fa leads the party off toward Yudu just before dusk.

Oct 11

Munich police attack German Protestants with sabers.

Oct 12

Johan Pommer, Archbishop of Latvia, is assassinated.

The core Long March participants have reached Yudu.

Oct 13

New York City police sink 1,155 slot machines in Long Island Sound.

Oct 14

Lux Radio Theater premieres, with a production of Seventh Heaven.

1200 Hungarian miners refuse to leave their mine and threaten to commit suicide unless their demands are met.

China places an export tax on silver, to halt its drain to the U. S.

Oct 15

French statesman Raymond Poincaré dies.

The U. S. reports that 10,800,000 people are now unemployed.

Mao speaks to Party cadres at Yudu, informs them of the Red Army's departure and what they might expect afterwards.

Chinese Nationalist general Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Meiling fly out of Nanchang to reconnoiter his country's northwestern area.

Oct 16

Communist China leader Mao Tse-tung abandons his base in Kiangsi and leads his troops, heading across southeastern China's Yudu River to the north - The Long March' official beginning. Seventy-four-year-old Zeng Xianhui leads one of the groups.

Five Morro Castle officers are found guilty of negligence.

Oct 18

Mao and his entourage join the Central Column and leave Yudu, crossing over the shallow Yudu River.

Oct 19

Roosevelt bans a bonus for veterans, declaring the unemployed come first.

Oct 20

A threat is made on Gloria Vanderbilt's life.

Oct 22

Federal agents track gangster Charles "Pretty Boy" Floyd to an Ohio farmhouse and gun him down.

Oct 24

Ten-year-old Gloria Vanderbilt tells a court that she would rather live with her aunt, Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney, rather than with her mother, Mrs. Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt.

Mahatma Gandhi resigns from the Indian National Congress because of a dispute.

Oct 25

A Union Pacific train makes a record-setting transcontinental run, New York to Los Angeles, in 57 hours.

Cape Codder Wilbur Isaac "Bill-Ike" Small beats his own record, having gone for a full year without sleep.

Oct 26

Roosevelt opposes Upton Sinclair's candidacy for the governorship of California.

Oct 28

The FERA arranges to buy Long Island potatoes to feed the needy.

Oct 30

Hunger marchers in Denver, Colorado, are beaten by the police.


Upton Sinclair loses the California election by a narrow margin.

Nov 1

Union Pacific's new diesel cuts 14-and-a-half hours off the Los Angeles to New York run.

Nov 2

The Nazis order Jewish composer Felix Mendelssohn's wedding music for Midsummer Night' s Dream replaced.

Nov 4

New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art opens a new show on industrial art.

Nov 6

The Democrats increase their majority in Congress.

Nebraska becomes the first and only state to have a unicameral legislature.

Huey Long asks Louisiana to secede from the U. S.

Nov 7

The Philadelphia Symphony premieres Sergei Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme by Paginini, in Baltimore, Maryland.

Fats Waller records If It Isn't Love and Breakin' the Ice.

Nov 9

Swedish Prime Minister Ingvar Carlson is born.

U. S. astronomer-author Carl Edward Sagan is born in New York City.

Nov 12

The Federal Reclamation Bureau stops construction on Arizona's Parker Dam site because of controversy surrounding the project.

Nov 13

Boston's Mayor Curley is elected Governor of Massachusetts.

Mussolini orders all teachers to wear Fascist uniforms on the job.

German envoy Joachim von Ribbentrop admits that his country is rearming.

Nov 14

U. S. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes halts construction of Parker Dam until states' rights issues are ironed out.

Jazz pianist Ellis Marsalis is born.

Nov 16

Leopold Stokowski conducts Harl MacDonald's First Symphony: The Santa Fe Trail.

Nov 17

Paraguay attacks a Bolivian fort, captures 10,000 troops.

Nov 19

Japan requests a naval ratio favoring Britain.

Nov 20

Lillian Hellman's play Children's Hour has it's New York premiere.

Nov 21

Cole Porter's Anything Goes opens on Broadway.

The courts award custody of Gloria Vanderbilt to her aunt.

Nov 23

Japan renounces the London treaty setting naval ratios.

Nov 24

A Chicago jury acquits Insull of mail fraud charges.

Nov 26

Swedish theologian Karl Barth is dismissed from his professorship at Bonn University when he refuses to sign a German loyalty oath.

Nov 27

Romania's army prohibits all communist groups.

Nov 28

George "Baby Face" Nelson shoots it out with two federal agents in Illinois, kills them and is later found dead in a ditch outside of Chicago with 17 bullets in him.

Winston Churchill warns England's House of Commons of a air threat by Germany.

As the Bolivian army in Chaco retreats president Daniel Salamanca's government is ousted.

Nov 29

The Mount Morris, New York, division of the Erie Railroad shuts down its electric line, runs only one gas-electric passenger car through 1941.

Nov 30

A royal decree annuls the Egyptian constitution and dissolves the Parliament.

Dec 1

Leningrad party leader Sergei Kirov is assassinated in Moscow, possibly on Stalin's orders.

Navy defeats Army in the football classic.

Dec 2

McAuley pours a second, improved Palomar lens.

Dec 3

The U. S. Supreme Court, in Hamilton v. Regents of the University of California, upholds the right of land-grant colleges to require military training.

Dec 5

U. S. author Joan Didion is born, in Sacramento, California.

Italy and Ethiopia join battle near the Somali-Ethiopia border.

Dec 8

Radio telephone service opens between the U. S. and Japan.

Dec 10

Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.

The League of Nations asks Hungary to punish those plotting against the government of Yugoslavia.

Dec 12

Members of Canandaigua, New York's women's Interrogation Club pose for a group photo, dressed in period costume.

Dec 13

Texas's School Defense League is founded in San Antonio to promote educational opportunities for Mexican-American schoolchildren.

Dec 14

Turkey gives women the vote.

Dec 16

Construction begins on California's All-American Canal.

Mussolini rejects the League of Nations offer to mediate in the Ethiopian border clash.

540 Bulgarians are arrested and charged with engaging in a Communist plot.

Dec 18

Delegates from sixteen countries attend a Fascist Congress at Montreaux, Switzerland.

Dec 20

Katharine Cornell's production of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet opens at New York' Martin Beck Theatre starring herself, Basil Rathbone, Edith Evans, Paul Julian, and Charles Waldron. Teen-age Orson Welles makes his professional stage debut as Tybalt.

The New York Philharmonic premieres Philip James' Bret Hart Overture.

Dec 22

Black novelist Wallace Thurman dies of tuberculosis in New York City at the age of 32.

Dec 25

California's Santa Anita racetrack opens.

Dec 29

Japan formally renounces the London Naval Treaty of 1930 and the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922.

Stalin executes more than 100 people accused of involvement in the Kirov assassination.

U. S.


The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) is made.


Work begins on the Yuma-Gila reclamation project.


Salvador Dali has a show at a New York City gallery. ** Helen Blish presents a three-volume report on the artwork of Oglala Sioux artist Amos Bad Heart Bull to the Carnegie Institution. ** Collector and interior designer Henry Davis Sleeper dies. ** Peter Blume's 1931 painting South of Scranton wins first prize at Pittsburgh's Carnegie International Exhibition.


American Airways changes its name to American Airlines. ** Designer Eldon Cessna leaves Cessna Aircraft, goes to the Douglas Aircraft Company.


New York Giants pitcher Carl Hubbell strikes out five batters in succession during an All-Star Game.


American Airways is renamed American Airlines. ** The past four years (ever since Hoover's Smoot-Hawley Act) have seen a two-thirds decline in world trade, due to retaliatory measures by foreign countries, which have increased their own tariffs.


Los Angeles' Farmers' Market and Gilmore Stadium open.


Last year's Century of Progress Exposition having been so popular, a second season is held.


Congress passes the Communications Act, reversing the Supreme Court's 1928 Olmstead v. United States decision permitting wiretapping.


The U. S. Forest Service inaugurates the Shelterbelt Project, to construct a 100-mile-wide system of windbreaks across the West, to reduce erosion and create jobs. It's discontinued in the early forties.


Sidney Kingsley wins the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for Men in White. ** Gilbert W. Gabriel's Clap Hands.


Editor Hedley Donovan graduates magna cum laude from the University of Minnesota. ** Future Morehead State Teachers College president Harvey Arthur Babb earns his M. A. from the University of Kentucky. ** Future rear admiral Grace Hopper receives her doctorate in mathematics from Yale.


George Cukor's David Copperfield, Mark Sandrich's The Gay Divorcee, W. S. Van Dyke II's The Thin Man, John Cromwell's Of Human Bondage, and Cecil B. DeMille's Cleopatra. ** Clark Gable wins the Academy Award for Best Actor for It Happened One Night.


80% of Key West's population is on public relief. By the start of winter's tourist season members of the community have donated over 2,000,000 hours of labor. ** Governor Sholtz turns a 1932 $2,124,000 deficit into a $591,000 surplus this year.


Because of complaints, CCC director Robert Fechner directs that all blacks in the program enrolled outside their own states be returned to those states as soon as possible.


Stewart H. Holbrook becomes a free lance writer.


Herbert Hoover publishes The Challenge to Liberty. ** The Brookings Institute publishes America's Capacity to Consume. ** The National Archives and Records Service (later the National Archives and Records Administration) is formed.


Ayn Rand's play Woman on Trial (Night of January 16th) has a brief run. She completes another play, Ideal, but it is unproduced.


The Wheeler-Howard Act abrogates the Dawes Act, which was passed to 'whiten' Indians, through education.


Harry Bridges becomes president of the Longshoremen's Union.


John Charles Doerfer graduates from Marquette Law School.


Charles B. Darrow of Germantown, Pennsylvania, shows the first version of his Monopoly game to Parker Brothers' executives; they reject it for design errors.


James M. Cain's The Postman Always Rings Twice, L. W. Gilfillan's I Went to Pit College, Robert Cantwell's Land of Plenty, James Branch Cabell's Smirt, William Saroyan's The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze, Samuel Hopkins Adams' TheGorgeous Hussy, Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer and Zora Neale Hurston's first novel Jonah's Gourd Vine. ** Caroline Miller wins the Pulitzer Prize for Lamb in His Bosom. ** Lewis Mumford's Technics and Civilization. ** Author Robert Bloch sells his first story, to the pulp magazine Weird Tales. ** Jewish literary critic Ludwig Lewisohn publishes his article "The Revolt Against Civilization", warning of the danger of Germany's anti-Semitism. ** Writer-editor Gilbert Harrison meets Gertrude Stein briefly, after a lecture she gives in Pasadena.


Don's Seafood restaurant opens in Lafayette. ** Writer Irving Wallace interviews governor Huey Long, who tells the journalist he expects to live to be 99.


Future playwright Arthur Miller enters the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor,

on a probationary basis, rooms in a private home with fellow New Yorker Charles Bleich.


John Lomax is appointed first honorary curator of the Library of Congress Archive ofAmerican Folk Music. ** Pop hits: All Through the Night and Blue Moon. ** Gene Autry's Empty Cot in the Bunkhouse Tonight. ** Trumpeter Louis Bacon joins Duke Ellington's Orchestra, briefly. ** Trumpeter Buck Clayton joins Teddy Weatherford's band in Shanghai, China, plays with the group for two years. ** Tommy Grate, bass singer with The Dubs, is born in Beaufort, South Carolina.


Roger Tory Peterson's A Field Guide to the Birds.

New York City

The women's Zionist organization Hadassah forms Youth Aliyah to rescue German children. ** 70 trains a day are now crossing the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge. ** Fiorello La Guardia is inaugurated as mayor. ** The collections of Columbia University's Low Memorial Library are moved across the quadrangle to Butler Hall and the former library becomes an administration building. ** The City Parks Department moves into the arsenal in Central Park at Fifth Avenue and East 64th Street. ** The former Wendel family home at 39th Street and Fifth Avenue, is demolished for the construction of Rockefeller Center. ** Sicilian-born actor Attilio Barbato plays the part of the poet Sospirini on the WOV radio program Buon Pranzo (Good Lunch). He also plays Mr. Wilson in Il Filosofo Coloniale (The Colonial Philosopher) for the station). ** Dorothy Parker's profile of her friend Alexander Woollcott appears in Vanity Fair magazine. ** The practice of grazing sheep in the Central Park meadow is discontinued. ** A theatrical company formed by sister and brother Emma and Angelo Barbato produces and performs Donna Billonia featuring themselves and her two children, Atillio and Olga. ** Tavern keeper Bill McSorley sells the Fidelio Brewery the right to call its ale McSorley's Cream Stock and to display his father (founder of the tavern) John's picture on the label.


Halsey, McCormack & and Helmer's Dollar Savings Bank on the Grand Concourse is completed. ** Robert Moses begins construction of Orchard Beach.

New York State

Ted Zornow, Sr. purchases his in-laws' Pittsford produce business and converts it into a bean and grain processing mill. ** The U. S. Veterans' Facility opens in Batavia. ** Painter Reginald Marsh spends six months in Hopewell Junction learning the fresco secco process from expert Olle Nordstrom. ** Albany politician Edwin Corning dies. ** Batavia mayor James J. Mahaney is inaugurated. ** Jesuit Joseph Timothy O'Callahan is ordained, in Poughkeepsie. ** A statue of Christopher Columbus is erected in Syracuse's St. Mary's Circle.


Roosevelt inaugurates a series of birthday balls, to raise money for research.


Reinhold Niebuhr's Moral Man and Immoral Society.


Dr. Edwin McMillan and M. Stanley Livingstone discover oxygen-15.


Radio priest Father Charles Coughlin forms the National Union for Social Justice, demands inflation, begins denouncing President Roosevelt as a liar.

Rochester, New York

The city celebrates its centennial. Among the guests is Joseph Leech, mayor of Rochester, England. Horse car No. 55 is brought out of retirement for a run through city streets. ** Architect Claude Bragdon edits an introduces Louis Sullivan's Kindergarten Chats. ** Radio station WHAM begins carrying a Boy Scouts news program hosted by Hubbs & Hastings Paper Company executive Walter E. Hastings. Syl Novelli provides piano accompaniment. ** The Exempts firefighters squad is formed in the area around Thomas Avenue. ** Rochester Medical Center's George Hoyt Whipple receives the Nobel Prize for his research into pernicious anemia. ** Eastman Kodak has 23,000 employees. ** Vic Annis (Anuszkiewicz), restaurant worker, at a Culver Road stand at Seabreeze, buys his own place nearby, opens Vic's Stand. It will later be renamed Vic and Irv's. ** When a culinary school near Chicago closes Jay Lesure buys their recipe for a hearty clam chowder for $600, introduces it in his restaurant, Jay's Diner, on West Henrietta Road.


Fritz Zwicky and Walter Baade distinguish supernovas from novas. ** Wallace Carothers leads a DuPont Company team in developing nylon.


Florian Witold Znaniecki's The Method of Sociology.

South Dakota

When a flaw in the granite ruins sculptor Gutzon Borglum's Mount Rushmore head of Thomas Jefferson the granite is blasted off.


Sportscaster 'Red' Barber arrives in Cincinnati, Ohio. ** While stock-car racing driver William France is moving his family from Washington State to Miami, Florida, his car breaks down in Daytona Beach and he decides to stay. ** Baseball authority Harold Seymour graduates from Drew University.


Maude Adams tours in Twelfth Night.


The Smuggler's Notch Spring Company is dissolved.


Backed by John D. Rockefeller, rector W. A. R. Goodwin's Colonial Williamsburg opens as the first living history museum in the U. S.

Washington, D. C.

Congress creates the National Archives.



Algerian-born French Islamic expert Jacques Berque begins working in Morocco in the colonial administration.


Salvador Dali's William Tell.


The Royal Canadian Air Force acquires its first ten fighter planes. ** Britain's Auxiliary Air Force (AAF) begins switching from bombers to fighters. ** 42 Home Defense squadrons are ready. ** The German aircraft industry is now turning out 180 planes a month in addition to the 584 already on hand. ** Adolf Galland becomes a fully qualified Lufthansa pilot. ** Germany develops the Heinkel He 111 transport-bomber. ** The British Air Ministry forms the Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defense, to explore theories of enemy aircraft detection and the possibility of exploding enemy bombs by radio waves.


Montréal's Les Conserts Symphoniques is founded, with Wilfrid Pelletier conducting. ** The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) acquires its first ten fighter planes. ** U. S. illustrator Rockwell Kent appears in Toronto while on a lecture tour, to great acclaim. ** Toronto newspapers report on 34 domestic disturbances across the country this year.


Moscow rejects an attempt by Bo Gu and Le De to send Mao Tse-tung there in the spring for 'medical treatment'; in reality an attempt to keep him from making the Long March. ** After being wounded on August 24 Chen Yi requests an x-ray, is refused, even though his bone splinters have not been all removed. When Zhou Enlai learns of it he makes immediate arrangements to have the x-rays taken before moving on.


Teenage ballerina Margot Fontes (Margot Fonteyn) makes her debut in the Vic-Wells ballet company's production of Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker.


Noel Coward's Theatre Royal , with Laurence Olivier, opens in London.


Novelist Maguid Mahfouz earns his bachelor's degree in Philosophy from the University of Cairo.


Archaeologist Alexander Keiller begins locating the stones of the Great Circle, at Avebury, dating back to the Bronze Age and reburied in the 18th Century. ** Sir Mortimer Wheeler begins a three-year dig to explore the Iron Age Maiden Castle site in Dorset. ** German Rhodes scholar Adolf Schlepegrell attends an Oxford University Tory meeting at which Winston Churchill speaks, goads the politician into saying today's Germans must accept responsibility for World War I aggression.


Rene Clair's The Last Millionaire. ** David Lean begins editing feature films.


Author Georges Bernanos moves to Majorca. ** A naturalist reputedly concludes that bees are physically unable to fly.


The Nazis jail Konrad Adenauer. ** Ferdinand Porsche designs the Beetle automobile. ** Hitler sends General Hans von Seekt to China to act as adviser to Chiang Kai-shek. ** Hitler confidant Ernst (Putzi) Hanfstaengl breaks with the Chancellor.


A. J. P. Taylor's The Italian Problem in European Diplomacy, 1847-1849.


Arnold Toynbee's A Study of History.


An earthquake, rated at 8.4 on the Richter Scale, kills 10,700 people.


Sectarian violence takes place in Belfast.

Japan begins incursions into China. ** A bottle containing a message washes up at a fishing village. It was written in 1784 by a shipwrecked sailor named Mitsuyama, originally from this same village.


Maxim Gorky convenes the first Soviet Writers' Congress. ** Robert Graves' I, Claudius, and James Hilton's Good-Bye Mr. Chips.


Wendy Hiller stars in Love on the Dole, adapted by her future husband Ronald Gow from Walter Greenwood's novel. ** Charles Darwin's granddaughter Nora Barlow visits Laura FitzRoy, daughter of HMS Beagle captain Robert FitzRoy. ** Parliament debates discrimination against Catholics in state employment. Irish Unionist politician Sir James Craig responds to Èamon de Valera's assertion that Ireland was a Catholic nation, argues that Northern Ireland possesses a Protestant Parliament and a Protestant Government.


Black U. S. singer Paul Robeson appears in the Soviet Union. ** Dmitri Shostakovich's opera A Lady Macbeth of Mzensk premieres.


The family of future President Alberto Fujimori arrives from Japan.


Bertrand Russell's Freedom and Organization.


Painter Abel Manta Applies for a vacancy as a teacher at the Fine Arts College of Lisbon with the canvas Apollo and the Nymph. He does a drawing for the Virgin of Belém stained glass window of Jerónimos Church. He wins the second medal of National Society for Fine Arts.


The final surviving child of Charles Dickens having died last year, the novelist's book The Life of Our Lord, can be published, as per the terms of his will.


Stalin begins a five-year series of purges. ** The nation's first zapovednik (nature preserve) - Kronotsky - is created.


Monarchist politician Antonio Goicochea visits Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and receives a promise to supply money and rifles for an coup attempt.


Joseph von Mehoffer, of Cracow, Poland, completes his stained-glass windows for St. Nicholas Cathedral in Fribourg, a 39-year project.

Copyright 2010 David Minor / Eagles Byte