The Dutch Staats turns down a Dutch request which would permit English pilgrims to settle the Hudson Valley.
Arent Van Curler, the founder of Schenectady, is born at Nijkerk, Holland.
A Dutch immigrant ship is wrecked on Sandy Hook. The crew and passengers get ashore and set out for Manhattan. Penelope van Princis stays behind with her seriously wounded husband. Raritan Indians find them, kill the husband and wound Penelope, leaving her for dead. She is captured by two Indians and eventually ransomed by New Amsterdam.
James I grants the Plymouth Company a colony in the New England area to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific (including what will become New York).
The Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyerde West-Indische Compagnie) monopoly is chartered in Holland by the States-General to completely control the Atlantic trade to North America and Africa. It is capitalized at 7,500,000 guilders. The British protest.
James I instructs ambassador to The Hague Sir Dudley Carleton to protest against the Dutch colonies and halt a fleet of half a dozen or so Dutch supply vessels.
The approximate date Francis Lovelace, future second colonial governor of New York, is born in Kent.
Sir Dudley Carlton, English envoy to the Hague, lodges a formal protest against the formation of the New Netherland colony. The Dutch deny any attempt to challenge English sovereignty.
Dutch trader Jacob Eelkes (Eelckens) captures a Pequot sachem on Long Island, threatens him with decapitation unless he pays a large ransom. The Pequot pays off Eelkes with 140 fathoms of wampum.
The Dutch ship New Netherland under Cornelius Jacobsz Mey departs with 30 families aboard, mostly French Hugenots from Spanish-ruled Belgium, the first settlers, for the mouth of the Hudson. Of the five unmarried women aboard four will be married while at sea.
The New Netherland arrives in New York harbor, discovers a French ship, which they escort out of the area. The settlers arrive on Nooten Eylandt (Nut Island, now Governors Island). Most go up the Hudson aboard the New Netherland to Fort Orange (Albany) the rest begin farming on Staten Island.
The Dutch West India Company is organized and given control over all Dutch coastal areas along western Africa and in the Americas. It takes control of New Amsterdam. One of her ships there stays over the winter into next year, trading on the Hudson River and on Long Island Sound. ** The West India Company claims a monopoly on the fur trade. ** The Long Island settlement of Huntington begins keeping records when the English settlers note lands they purchase from the local Indians. ** A petition by Protestant (Walloon) refugees from Spanish persecution, now in New Netherland, requesting they be taken under the wing of the Dutch West India Company, arrives in Amsterdam.
The New Netherland's commander Cornelius Jacobsz Mey, advised by Adriaen Jorisz Thienpont, who he encountered in North America upon his arrival, sails up the Hudson to the abandoned Fort Nassau, and builds Fort Orange. Thienpont establishes friendly relations with nearby Indians.
Catalina Trico and Joris Rapalje, passengers for the New Netherland, are married in Amsterdam.
The New Netherland, under the command of Cornelius Jacobsz May, sails from Amsterdam. The Dutch West India Company's Provisional Orders are read to the assembled passengers.
The New Netherland leaves Holland.
18 Walloon families settle near the site of Albany.
Former textile worker Bastiaen Jansz Krol, who arrived in New Amsterdam earlier in
the year as a "comforter of the sick" (rank below that of a minister), and having
returned to Amsterdam, appears before the church council and applies to perform
baptisms and marriages in Fort Orange (Albany), and is authorized to do so. He founds
the Dutch Reformed Church of North America.
Dutch West India Company ships have returned to the Netherlands, bringing reports of great success in the New Amsterdam colonies. They carry furs worth 50,000 guilders.
A few buildings are erected within the walls of Fort Orange. ** The Dutch West India Company brings 30 families to settle in the Albany area. ** Fighting resumes between the Mohawk and Mahican near Albany. ** David Pietersz de Vries attempts an illegal trading voyage to New Netherland.
The Spanish capture Wesel. Townsman Peter Minuit leaves for the Netherlands. He goes to the Dutch West India company headquarters and requests a posting to New Netherland, as a volunteer business promoter.
The Dutch West India Company issues the Provisional Orders, warning colonists they are going to the New World strictly as employees and will follow all company directives as to the location of settlements and farms, and the crops planted.
England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Southampton, a defensive and offensive alliance designed to protect the latter from Spain. Colonial ports are to be open to both English and Dutch merchants.
A crude Dutch map of Long Island refers to the Matouwax (Metoac) tribe.
English travel writer Samuel Purchas continues his Pilgrimes series, including his transcription from a facsimile of the log of Robert Juet, Henry Hudson's first mate on the voyage to the New World.
Minuit arrives at the site of the future New Amsterdam in the Sea-mew.
Minuit returns to Manhattan from a trip to Albany.
Minuit meets with De Rasière. They decide to send Frisian lay minister Bastiaen Krol to Albany to replace the massacred Daniel Van Criekenbeeck as military leader of the outpost.
Willem Verhulst and his wife return to the Netherlands aboard the ship The Arms of Amsterdam. The ship also carries a letter from Secretary and commercial agent Issack de Rasière to the directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company - the first known letter written from New Amsterdam, announcing Peter Minuit's purchase of Manhattan Island from the Lenape Indians for 60 guilders, and announcing his orders to many colonists at Fort Orange (Albany) and Fort Nassau (Gloucerster, New Jersey) to move to New Amsterdam. He mentions buying beads from the Minquac Indians, and sends several samples, asking for manufctured beads in return. The vessel also bears samples of summer grain crops as well as more than 8,000 animal pelts. With Fort Amsterdam nearing completion, builder Crijn Fredericks departs.
Patroon Frederick Philipse is born in Bolswaert, the Netherlands.
Father Joseph de la Roche-Dallion becomes one of the first Europeans to visit the Niagara region. ** A few months after Fort Orange is voluntarily depopulated commander Daniel Van Crieckenbeek (Creickenbeeck), three of his men and 24 Mahicans, including chief Monemin, are ambushed and killed nearby by a Mohawk war party. One of the men, Tymen Bouwensz is roasted and eaten by the Mohawks. The Dutch had been forming an alliance against the Mohawks with the Mahicans, who begin to pushing the latter eastward from Schoharie Creek to the Hudson River.
William Bradford writes to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, expressing the Pilgrims' appreciation for treatnent they received while living in the Netherlands. He accepts an offer to trade from Dutch West India Company secretary Isaak de Rasières.
Dutch delegate Jan de Wieringen arrives in Plymouth with gifts of sugar and cheese, and a message from Peter Minuit - maintaining Dutch rights to settle and trade in New Amsterdam.
The approximate date Bradford writes to New Amsterdam, reiterating England's claim to the entire region and suggesting their home country work with his as soon as possible to resolve the issue.
De Rasières travels to Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, aboard the Nassau. Bradford sends a boat for the ambassador to bring him to New Plymouth (today's Plimouth Plantation). They discuss a trade treaty, but Bradford is noncommittal. The Pilgrims buy all of the Nassau's trade goods.
Bradford writes the government in New Amsterdam, again thanking the Dutch for their hospitality to the Pilgrims.
The West India Company sends goods worth 56,170 guilders to New Amsterdam and receives 7,520 beaver pelts and 370 otter skins, worth 56,420 guilders.
Europeans discover the oil springs in Allegany County. ** French missionary
Joseph de la Roche Dallion explores the region around the future Cattaraugus County.
A patroonship plan is drawn up for New Netherland. The original document has been lost.
Albany's Fort Orange is rebuilt. ** The Iroquois have driven the Mahican east of the Hudson River. ** Mohawks and Mahicans next turn their focus to the Lenape, in the lower Hudson Valley, sending raiding parties south to demand tribute.
To encourage colonization, the Dutch West India Company's Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions (Charter of Liberties) establishes the patroon system in New Netherland (New York colony). In exchange for a trade monopoly the Company agrees to supply slaves and build a better fort on Manhattan. Indian lands outside of Manhattan must be purchased from them. Amsterdam pearl merchant Killian van Rensselaer is given the first charter.
Even though the New World fur trade is making money, directors of the Dutch West India Company complain to the States General that settlers are not producing a profit.
(c) 2010 David Minor / Eagles Byte